One thing the world needs, one thing this country desperately needs is a better way of conducting our political debates. We need to rediscover the lost art of democratic argument. (Applause) If you think about the arguments we have, most of the time it's shouting matches on cable television, ideological food fights on the floor of Congress. I have a suggestion. Look at all the arguments we have these days over health care, over bonuses and bailouts on Wall Street, over the gap between rich and poor, over affirmative action and same-sex marriage. Lying just beneath the surface of those arguments, with passions raging on all sides, are big questions of moral philosophy, big questions of justice. But we too rarely articulate and defend and argue about those big moral questions in our politics.
So what I would like to do today is have something of a discussion. First, let me take a famous philosopher who wrote about those questions of justice and morality, give you a very short lecture on Aristotle of ancient Athens, Aristotle's theory of justice, and then have a discussion here to see whether Aristotle's ideas actually inform the way we think and argue about questions today. So, are you ready for the lecture? According to Aristotle justice means giving people what they deserve. That's it; that's the lecture.
Now, you may say, well, that's obvious enough. The real questions begin when it comes to arguing about who deserves what and why. Take the example of flutes. Suppose we're distributing flutes. Who should get the best ones? Let's see what people -- What would you say? Who should get the best flute? You can just call it out.
Michael Sandel: At random. You would do it by lottery. Or by the first person to rush into the hall to get them. Who else?
(Audience: The best flute players.)
MS: The best flute players. (Audience: The worst flute players.)
MS: The worst flute players. How many say the best flute players? Why? Actually, that was Aristotle's answer too.
But here's a harder question. Why do you think, those of you who voted this way, that the best flutes should go to the best flute players?
Peter: The greatest benefit to all.
MS: The greatest benefit to all. We'll hear better music if the best flutes should go to the best flute players. That's Peter? (Audience: Peter.)
MS: All right. Well, it's a good reason. We'll all be better off if good music is played rather than terrible music. But Peter, Aristotle doesn't agree with you that that's the reason. That's all right. Aristotle had a different reason for saying the best flutes should go to the best flute players. He said, that's what flutes are for -- to be played well. He says that to reason about just distribution of a thing, we have to reason about, and sometimes argue about, the purpose of the thing, or the social activity, in this case, musical performance. And the point, the essential nature, of musical performance is to produce excellent music. It'll be a happy byproduct that we'll all benefit. But when we think about justice, Aristotle says, what we really need to think about is the essential nature of the activity in question and the qualities that are worth honoring and admiring and recognizing. One of the reasons that the best flute players should get the best flutes is that musical performance is not only to make the rest of us happy, but to honor and recognize the excellence of the best musicians.
現在，分配笛子似乎...看起來是個平凡的例子，讓我們舉一個關於分配正義的當代例子，這與高爾夫有關。幾年前，Casey Martin，Casey Martin，有人聽過他嗎？他是一個非常好的高爾夫球手，但他是殘障人士，他的腳有問題，循環系統出了問題，這使得他在走過賽程時奇痛無比。事實上，這使他有運動傷害的危險。他問PGA，美國職業高爾夫球協會，是否可以在PGA比賽中使用高爾夫球車。他們說：「不，那會讓你得到不公平的優勢。」他一狀告上法院，他的案子一路上到美國最高法院，你們相信嗎？這麼一件關於高爾夫球車的訴訟。因為法律上說，我們必須為殘障人士提供妥善的輔助設施，前提是提供妥善的殘障設施並不會改變比賽或活動的本質。他說：「我是一位優秀的高爾夫球選手，我要參加比賽，但我需要一輛高爾夫球車，讓我可以從這一洞到下一洞。」
假使你們是最高法院，假設你們要審議這個涉及正義的案子，有多少人認為Casey Martin有權使用高爾夫球車？另外，有多少人認為他沒有？好，讓我們做個調查，請舉手，有多少人站在 Casey Martin 這一方？那有多少人不支持他呢？很好，我們已有兩種不同的意見了。有人不願給予Casey Martin使用高爾夫球車的權利，你們的理由是什麼？請舉手，我們會試著把麥克風遞給你，你的理由是什麼？
Now, flutes may seem ... the distribution of flutes may seem a trivial case. Let's take a contemporary example of the dispute about justice. It had to do with golf. Casey Martin -- a few years ago, Casey Martin -- did any of you hear about him? He was a very good golfer, but he had a disability. he had a bad leg, a circulatory problem, that made it very painful for him to walk the course. In fact, it carried risk of injury. He asked the PGA, the Professional Golfers' Association, for permission to use a golf cart in the PGA tournaments. They said, "No. Now that would give you an unfair advantage." He sued, and his case went all the way to the Supreme Court, believe it or not, the case over the golf cart. Because the law says that the disabled must be accommodated, provided the accommodation does not change the essential nature of the activity. He says, "I'm a great golfer. I want to compete. But I need a golf cart to get from one hole to the next."
Suppose you were on the Supreme Court. Suppose you were deciding the justice of this case. How many here would say that Casey Martin does have a right to use a golf cart? And how many say, no, he doesn't? All right, let's take a poll, show of hands. How many would rule in favor of Casey Martin? And how many would not? How many would say he doesn't? All right, we have a good division of opinion here. Someone who would not grant Casey Martin the right to a golf cart, what would be your reason? Raise your hand, and we'll try to get you a microphone. What would be your reason?
(Audience: It'd be an unfair advantage.)
MS: It would be an unfair advantage if he gets to ride in a golf cart. All right, those of you, I imagine most of you who would not give him the golf cart worry about an unfair advantage. What about those of you who say he should be given a golf cart? How would you answer the objection? Yes, all right.
Audience: The cart's not part of the game.
MS: Charlie 說，我們會給Charlie一隻麥克風，方便有人想回答。告訴我們，Charlie，你為什麼說他應該能使用高爾夫球車？
MS: What's your name? (Audience: Charlie.)
MS: Charlie says -- We'll get Charlie a microphone in case someone wants to reply. Tell us, Charlie, why would you say he should be able to use a golf cart?
Charlie: The cart's not part of the game.
MS: But what about walking from hole to hole?
Charlie: It doesn't matter; it's not part of the game.
MS: Walking the course is not part of the game of golf?
Charlie: Not in my book, it isn't.
MS: All right. Stay there, Charlie.
Who has an answer for Charlie? All right, who has an answer for Charlie? What would you say?
Audience: The endurance element is a very important part of the game, walking all those holes.
MS: Walking all those holes? That's part of the game of golf? (Audience: Absolutely.)
MS: What's your name? (Audience: Warren.)
MS: Warren. Charlie, what do you say to Warren?
Charley: I'll stick to my original thesis.
MS: Warren, are you a golfer?
Warren: I am not a golfer.
Charley: And I am. (MS: Okay.) (Laughter)
MS:你們知道，這很有趣，在這個案例中，在下級法院，他們讓傑出的高爾夫選手為這個特殊案例作證，步行在比賽中是必不可少的過程嗎？他們找來Jack Nicklaus 和 Arnold Palmer，你們猜他們都怎麼說？是的，他們同意 Warren的說法，他們說，是的，走完全程是費力的運動，疲憊在高爾夫球賽中是重要的一環，所以讓他使用高爾夫球車會改變比賽的根本性質。現在，請注意，這裡有件有趣的事，嗯，我應該先告訴你們關於最高法院的說法。
最高法院作了裁決，你們認為他們怎麼說？他們說，是的, 必需提供給Casey Martin一輛高爾夫球車，七比二，這是他們的裁決。有趣的是，關於他們的判決，以及我們剛剛的討論那些有關權利與正義等問題，都是建立於我們對高爾夫球比賽必要本質的認識，而最高法院審慎思量了那問題，大法官Stevens是多數那一派，說他遍讀了高爾夫球的歷史，而這項比賽的關鍵之處在於把一個非常小的球，從一個地方推到一個洞裡，盡可能使用最少桿數，而走路並不是必要的，僅是次要的。
You know, it's interesting. In the case, in the lower court, they brought in golfing greats to testify on this very issue. Is walking the course essential to the game? And they brought in Jack Nicklaus and Arnold Palmer. And what do you suppose they all said? Yes. They agreed with Warren. They said, yes, walking the course is strenuous physical exercise. The fatigue factor is an important part of golf. And so it would change the fundamental nature of the game to give him the golf cart. Now, notice, something interesting -- Well, I should tell you about the Supreme Court first.
The Supreme Court decided. What do you suppose they said? They said yes, that Casey Martin must be provided a golf cart. Seven to two, they ruled. What was interesting about their ruling and about the discussion we've just had is that the discussion about the right, the justice, of the matter depended on figuring out what is the essential nature of golf. And the Supreme Court justices wrestled with that question. And Justice Stevens, writing for the majority, said he had read all about the history of golf, and the essential point of the game is to get very small ball from one place into a hole in as few strokes as possible, and that walking was not essential, but incidental.
Now, there were two dissenters, one of whom was Justice Scalia. He wouldn't have granted the cart, and he had a very interesting dissent. It's interesting because he rejected the Aristotelian premise underlying the majority's opinion. He said it's not possible to determine the essential nature of a game like golf. Here's how he put it. "To say that something is essential is ordinarily to say that it is necessary to the achievement of a certain object. But since it is the very nature of a game to have no object except amusement, (Laughter) that is, what distinguishes games from productive activity, (Laughter) it is quite impossible to say that any of a game's arbitrary rules is essential."
然而，讓每個人乘坐高爾夫球車可能會，我懷疑，可能會讓那些球星與PGA非常苦惱，甚至比為 Casey Martin破例還嚴重，為什麼？因為在這個高爾夫球車的爭議中，所影響到的部分不只是高爾夫球賽的本質而已，它還涉及到一個問題，什麼樣的能力才值得運動員的才華獲得崇敬與認可？我盡可能地試著詳細鋪陳這個論點。高爾夫球選手們對於其運動員的地位有些敏感，（笑聲）畢竟，這項比賽沒有跑步或跳躍，而那顆球通常也靜止不動，（笑聲）所以，如果高爾夫球是那種可以安坐於車上的比賽的話，人們就很難賦予那些高爾夫球巨星偉大崇高的地位，以及對於偉大球星的榮耀與認可，這說明了高爾夫球，如同笛子一般，很難界定其所需的正義，如果不對以下問題做討論的話：「什麼是這項活動的內在本質，以及跟這項活動有關的何種性質及卓越之處，是值得尊敬與認可的？」
So there you have Justice Scalia taking on the Aristotelian premise of the majority's opinion. Justice Scalia's opinion is questionable for two reasons. First, no real sports fan would talk that way. (Laughter) If we had thought that the rules of the sports we care about are merely arbitrary, rather than designed to call forth the virtues and the excellences that we think are worthy of admiring, we wouldn't care about the outcome of the game. It's also objectionable on a second ground. On the face of it, it seemed to be -- this debate about the golf cart -- an argument about fairness, what's an unfair advantage. But if fairness were the only thing at stake, there would have been an easy and obvious solution. What would it be? (Audience: Let everyone use the cart.) Let everyone ride in a golf cart if they want to. Then the fairness objection goes away.
But letting everyone ride in a cart would have been, I suspect, more anathema to the golfing greats and to the PGA, even than making an exception for Casey Martin. Why? Because what was at stake in the dispute over the golf cart was not only the essential nature of golf, but, relatedly, the question, what abilities are worthy of honor and recognition as athletic talents? Let me put the point as delicately as possible: Golfers are a little sensitive about the athletic status of their game. (Laughter) After all, there's no running or jumping, and the ball stands still. (Laughter) So if golfing is the kind of game that can be played while riding around in a golf cart, it would be hard to confer on the golfing greats the status that we confer, the honor and recognition that goes to truly great athletes. That illustrates that with golf, as with flutes, it's hard to decide the question of what justice requires, without grappling with the question "What is the essential nature of the activity in question, and what qualities, what excellences connected with that activity, are worthy of honor and recognition?"
Let's take a final example that's prominent in contemporary political debate: same-sex marriage. There are those who favor state recognition only of traditional marriage between one man and one woman, and there are those who favor state recognition of same-sex marriage. How many here favor the first policy: the state should recognize traditional marriage only? And how many favor the second, same-sex marriage? Now, put it this way, what ways of thinking about justice and morality underlie the arguments we have over marriage? The opponents of same-sex marriage say that the purpose of marriage, fundamentally, is procreation, and that's what's worthy of honoring and recognizing and encouraging. And the defenders of same-sex marriage say no, procreation is not the only purpose of marriage. What about a lifelong, mutual, loving commitment? That's really what marriage is about. So with flutes, with golf carts, and even with a fiercely contested question like same-sex marriage, Aristotle has a point. Very hard to argue about justice without first arguing about the purpose of social institutions and about what qualities are worthy of honor and recognition.
So let's step back from these cases and see how they shed light on the way we might improve, elevate, the terms of political discourse in the United States, and for that matter, around the world. There is a tendency to think that if we engage too directly with moral questions in politics, that's a recipe for disagreement, and for that matter, a recipe for intolerance and coercion. So better to shy away from, to ignore, the moral and the religious convictions that people bring to civic life. It seems to me that our discussion reflects the opposite, that a better way to mutual respect is to engage directly with the moral convictions citizens bring to public life, rather than to require that people leave their deepest moral convictions outside politics before they enter. That, it seems to me, is a way to begin to restore the art of democratic argument.
Thank you very much.
Thank you very much. Thanks. Thank you. Chris. Thanks, Chris.
Chris Anderson: From flutes to golf courses to same-sex marriage. That was a genius link. Now look, you're a pioneer of open education. Your lecture series was one of the first to do it big. What's your vision for the next phase of this?
MS: Well, I think that it is possible. In the classroom, we have arguments on some of the most fiercely held moral convictions that students have about big public questions. And I think we can do that in public life more generally. And so my real dream would be to take the public television series that we've created of the course -- it's available now, online, free for everyone anywhere in the world -- and to see whether we can partner with institutions, at universities in China, in India, in Africa, around the world, to try to promote civic education and also a richer kind of democratic debate.
CA: So you picture, at some point, live, in real time, you could have this kind of conversation, inviting questions, but with people from China and India joining in?
MS: Right. We did a little bit of it here with 1,500 people in Long Beach, and we do it in a classroom at Harvard with about 1,000 students. Wouldn't it be interesting to take this way of thinking and arguing, engaging seriously with big moral questions, exploring cultural differences and connect through a live video hookup, students in Beijing and Mumbai and in Cambridge, Massachusetts and create a global classroom. That's what I would love to do.
CA: So, I would imagine that there are a lot of people who would love to join you in that endeavor. Michael Sandel. Thank you so much. (MS: Thanks so much.)